Monday, December 9, 2019
Individual Assignment : Sales Ethics is an Oxymoron It is often disputed amongst business enthusiasts whether Ã¢â¬Ësales ethics is an oxymoron? Ã¢â¬â¢ A few decades ago, understanding and fostering ethical decision-making in the business world wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as complicated as it is today. It is argued that although individual factors play a significant role in the ethical practice of day-to-day business, ultimately it is up to management and the top-level hierarchy of a firm that ultimately sets the standards when it comes to trading ethically. This paper discusses why sales ethics is not an oxymoron and why management is the key source of guidance for ethical behavior within an organization. The presence of business scandals has increasingly become the focus of the media that draws our attention to the ethical policies and the practice of leaders of our corporate world. Scandals such as ENRON and MCI are just a few of the business demonstrating lack of ethical codes and guidelines at the top of many organizations. The Economist stated in 2007 that out of 165 business, over 65 sales executives were under investigation for violation of ethical behavior in the U. S alone (Mulki, Jaramillo and Locander, 2008, 125). Sales people are the main function of a business that are continuously under pressure to produce results and so are more susceptible to unethical practice. Furthermore, research shows that the general public find sales people the most untrustworthy function of a business and describe them as having low ethical standards. Corporate bodies have responded to this by implementing a set code of ethics and policies which each employee, either at top or bottom level hierarchy must abide by. For example the pharmaceutical industry has undergone much scrutiny, in regards to questionable promotional tactics such as lavish gifts in order to have their medicines prescribed over competitors. Recognizing these concerns, the industry trade association created a set of industry guidelines for sales people in order to regulate salespersons interactions with physicians. However the level of commitment to these voluntary guidelines rest with senior management and if they are put into practice. The path-goal theory examined by (Mulki, Jaramillo and Locander, 2008, 126) demonstrates that management is in fact responsible for goal setting, clarifying oaths to achieve these goals and implementing rewards systems dependent on achieving these goals. Most would agree that the face of any organization is undoubtly its sales force, so unfortunately the manner in which a sales person behaves in crucial in determining a companies reputation amongst customers and also other business. Schwepker and Good, 2009, 609) describe the results of a recent study that showed sales managers ethical attitude influence hiring and training decisions which in turn impacts each sales personÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical behavior. In the twenty-first century business are expanding globally, and so the Ã¢â¬Ëblack and whiteÃ¢â¬â¢ of decision making is becoming increasingly complex, especial ly for employees in the lower levels of management, across different cultures. Literature suggests that overall, on a national level employees with lower incomes are directly related to high corruption, or, as a person progresses higher in the organizational hierarchy, money assumes lesser importance (M. Sui and Lam, 2009). This is a significant factor for top management to consider, as they enforce the actions and procedures of the firm and ultimately decide whether each employee, whether top tier or bottom tier, in any culture will perform in an ethical manner. writing services agreement Therefore it is even more imperative for lower level management to strictly enforce the expectations of their employees and possibly even have Ã¢â¬ËextraÃ¢â¬â¢ supervision in those areas where the norm or social expectations are significantly different. From the above points it is therefore important to examine an Ã¢â¬Ëethical climateÃ¢â¬â¢. This term is defined as Ã¢â¬Ëthose aspects of work climate that determine what constitutes ethical behavior at workÃ¢â¬â¢. Mulki, Jaramillo and Locander, 2008) states that individual employees use their own values and personal beliefs as a reference in making ethical decisions, but frame these against the guidelines received by co-workers and managers. Unlike individual factors, the decision making process is greatly influenced by organizational factors. Strict guides should be put in place in reference to conflict, training, supervision, rewards and punishment in order to successfully implement organizational policies and procedures. Studies also show that sales managers be consistent in implementing their own standards with that of the industry so there is no variance amongst employees from other competitive businesses (Mulki, Jaramillo and Locander, 2008,). Competitive sales environments, increasing customer demands, high pressure to hit sales targets may be the cause of unethical performance in the business. Thus, management can use appropriate pressures and standards to ensure ethical policies are complied with or individuals will be prompted to behave unethically. Furthermore, findings from (M. Sui and Lam, 2009, 167) report that managers have political power to somewhat shape the organisations culture and behavior of subornates. In saying so, when managers demonstrate a stronger belief in integrity their employees feel a higher sense of job satisfaction and are hence more committed to not only their job, but the values and beliefs of the organization. The findings state that hiring and training Ã¢â¬Ëmorally upstandingÃ¢â¬â¢ employees, managers gain a greater importance and employees are encouraged to work harder for the business. We can thus summarize that training employees to behave ethically not only is regulatory in most business, but is also highly profitable for both company and employee. As a salesperson, your professional reputation is the most important asset you possess, much like an organization. Individuals do have their own inputs into each action, however if management themselves follow a well structured set of ethical policies and procedures, employees will follow in the same ethical manner. Ethical performance in sales is therefore achievable, if implemented and carried out by corporate bodies. As Boe (2009, 16) states, the importance of impeccable business ethics and professional character are key considerations when selecting a sales person. The most sought after traits include integrity, trustworthiness, competency and reliability. It can be argued that all these priceless character traits also apply to the identity of an organization. Thus, in order for a company to build and maintain strong customer relationships, it is imperative that management themselves set the standards for behaving in an ethical manner in order for the whole company to be successful. References Schwepker Jr,Charles H and David J. Good. 2009. Ã¢â¬Å" Moral Judgement and its Impacts on Business-to-Business Sales Performance and Customer Relationships. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Business Ethics 98: 609-625. http://proquest. umi. com. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/pqdweb? index=0did=2275299331SrchMode=1sid=1Fmt=6VInst=PRODVType=PQDRQT=309VName=PQDTS=1301305986clientId=22212 Schwepker and Good, 2009 Mulki, Jay P, Jorge Fernando Jaramillo and William B. Locander. 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Critical Role of Leadership on Ethical Climate and Salesperson Behaviors. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Business Ethics 86: 125-141. ttp://proquest. umi. com. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/pqdweb? index=55did=1675577171SrchMode=1sid=2Fmt=6VInst=PRODVType=PQDRQT=309VName=PQDTS=1301292572clientId=22212 Mulki, Jaramillo and Locander, 2008 M. Siu, Noel Y and Kit-Chun Joanna Lam. 2009. Ã¢â¬Å"A Comparative Study of Ethical Perceptions of Managers and Non-Managers. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Business Ethics 88: 167-183. http://proquest. umi. com. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/pqdweb? index=57did=1711327301SrchMode=1sid=2Fmt=6VInst=PRODVType=PQDRQT=309VName=PQDTS=1301293094clientId=22212 M. Sui and Lam, 2009 Boe, John. 2009. Ã¢â¬Å" The Ripple Effect. Ã¢â¬ Burlington 54 (6): 15-17. http://proquest. umi. com. dbgw. lis. curtin. edu. au/pqdweb? index=8did=1730425281SrchMode=3sid=2Fmt=3VInst=PRODVType=PQDRQT=309VName=PQDTS=1301306952clientId=22212aid=1 Boe 2009 Dubinsky, Alan J, Rajan Nataraajan and Wen-Yeh Huang. 2004. Ã¢â¬Å"The Influence of Moral Philosophy on Retail Salespeoples Ethical Perceptions. Ã¢â¬ The Journal of Consumer SalespeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ethical Perceptions 38 (2): 297-320.
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Monday, December 2, 2019
summer night in 1995 in New York City, teenager Rance Scully and three of his friends were walking home from a party when they noticed a police car following them. The four teenagers were doing nothing wrong, so Scully convinced his friends that they should turn around and go talk with the officers. When they headed for the patrol car, the officers suddenly blinded them with a police light and ordered them to stop and spread their legs. Three cops jumped out of the car with guns drawn and surrounded the frightened teens. After aggressively interrogating and searching Scully and his friends, the police released them. In New York City, police arrested two teenage boys and a young woman who repeatedly raped and tortured a thirteenyear- old girl, and then hung her up in a closet; fortunately, the girl escaped. A five-year-old in Chicago was not so lucky. Two boys?one twelve, the other thirteen?were arrested and convicted of dropping him out of a fourteenth-story window, killing him. Teens and young adults are increasingly involved in encounters with police. The frightening ordeal experienced by Scully and his friends can cause many young people to fear law enforcement, yet police contend that they need to monitor teens more closely due to the brutal nature of some crimes committed by teens. Teen-police conflicts are escalating as teen crime rates rise. According to the Heritage Foundation, teenagers are responsible for most of the violent crimes in the United States. In response to the high incidence of teen crime, police often increase their presence where crime occurs. For example, New York City mayor Rudolph Giuliani ordered the New York City Police Department to control security at the city?s schools after several shootings by teens occurred on school grounds. Another example of stronger police presence can be seen in the creation of gang-control units that patrol the streets on a regular basis. Since up to 90 percent of gang members are juveniles, run-ins between police in gang-control units and teens are increasingly common. Many teenagers argue, however, that they are being unfairly harassed and brutalized by law enforcement just because some teens commit violent crimes. Alex Stephen, sixteen, of New York City, said her cousin was beaten by police officers in 1989. Nagib Nabi, seventeen, claims that New York City police stopped and frisked him even though he had not done anything wrong. ?They tried to intimidate me by calling me ?sp-c? and other insulting names,? he contends. ?And they threw me on the wall, and as I turned around they hit me with the baton on the back of my head.? Gia Minetta, another teen from New York City, claims that during a police sweep, officers ?grabbed my arm, twisted it behind me . . . and threw me up against the police van.? According to Minetta, she and her friends had done nothing to provoke the brutal treatment by police. Statistics show that police are focusing more on teens and juvenile crime. Kim Nauer, a writer for City Limits, reports that in New York City juvenile arrests jumped almost 30 percent in the first year under Mayor Giuliani. In 1984, she claims, ?police arrested 98,413 children and teenagers on everything from loitering to murder.? Almost half of those arrests were for ?non-fingerprintable offenses,? meaning minor crimes like public drinking or disorderly conduct. Community activists who want to protect teens from police harassment protest the extent of those arrests. Joyce Hall, executive director of the Greater Brownsville Youth Council in New York City, claims that the arrests create a ?cycle? in which teens who feel that they are treated disrespectfully by police ?lash back, getting themselves into even deeper trouble with the law.? But police see the teen crime situation very differently. More than one-third of all murders are committed by offenders under the age of twenty-one, guns are used in juvenile crimes at almost twice the rate they were in 1984, and teen drug and alcohol use?factors that contribute to juvenile crime?are on the rise. In 1995, nearly 11 percent of juveniles admitted to using illicit drugs; in the period between 1995 and 1996, 31 percent of twelfth-graders admitted to consuming alcohol to get drunk.
Posted by Unknown at 7:11 AM
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Kenya Timeline essays 1000 BC Many different types of African people started to settle in Kenya. 5000B.C. The first great civilization in Africa began in the Nile Valley. 700 AD The Arabs established coastal settlements. 1500-1700 The Portuguese ruled all of the coastal area. 1895 Kenya became a colony of Britain. 1901 Britain completed a railroad in between Mombassa and Lake Victoria. 1950 Nairobi became the capital of Kenya. 1920s The Europeans controlled all of Kenyas government. 1929 Jomo Kenyatta went to Great Britain to argue for Kenyas freedom. 1940 Kenyans began a movement against British rule. 1944 The Kikuyu and other Kenyans formed a political party called the Kenyan 1947 Jomo Kenyatta became the leader of KAU. (Kenya Africa Union) 1953 The British declared state of emergency and sent 80,000 Africans to 1956 Kenya began the process of self government. 1963 Kenya gained independence from Britain, and became a free nation. 1978 President Jomo Kenyatta, Kenyas first leader, died. Vice President Daniel T. 1982 KANU officially became Kenyas only illegal political party. 1990 Riots broke out in Nairobi to support of a multiparty system. 1991 Kenyas constitution was amended to allow for a multiparty system. 1992 Moi became the president of the KANU. ...
Posted by Unknown at 12:16 AM
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Biography of Aristotle, Influential Greek Philosopher Aristotle (384Ã¢â¬â322 BCE) was one of the most important western philosophers in history. A student of Plato, Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great. He later went on to form his own Lyceum (school) in Athens, where he developed important philosophical, scientific, and practical theories, many of which had great significance during the Middle Ages and are still influential today. Aristotle wrote on logic, nature, psychology, ethics, politics, and art, developed one of the first systems for classifying plants and animals, and posited significant theories on topics ranging from the physics of motion to the qualities of the soul. He is credited with developing deductive (top-down) reasoning, a form of logic used in the scientific process and highly valued in business, finance, and other modern settings. Fast Facts: Aristotle Known For: One of the greatest and most influential philosophers of all time, as well as a tremendously important figure in the history of science, mathematics, and theaterBorn: 384 BCE in Stagira, GreeceParents: Nichomachus (mother unknown)Died: 322 BCE in Chalcis, on the island of EuboeaEducation: Academy of PlatoPublished Works: Over 200 works, including Nichomachean Ethics, Politics, Metaphysics, Poetics, and Prior AnalyticsSpouse(s): Pythias,Ã Herpyllis of Stagira (mistress with whom he had a son)Children: NicomachusNotable Quote: Excellence is never an accident. It is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, and intelligent execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives Ã¢â¬â choice, not chance, determines your destiny. Early Life Aristotle was born in 384 BCE in the city of Stagira in Macedonia, a seaport on the Thracian coast. His father Nichomacus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia. Nichomacus died while Aristotle was still young, so he came under the guardianship of Proxenus. It was Proxenus who sent Aristotle, at age 17, to complete his education in Athens. Upon arriving in Athens, Aristotle attended the institution of philosophical learning known as the Academy, which was founded by Socrates pupil Plato, where he stayed until Platos death in 347. Aristotle was an outstanding pupil and soon began giving his own lectures on rhetoric. Despite his impressive reputation, however, Aristotle often disagreed with Platos ideas; the result was that, when a successor to Plato was selected, Aristotle was passed over in favor of Platos nephew Speusippus. With no future at the Academy, Aristotle was not at loose ends for long. Hermeas, ruler of Atarneus and Assos in Mysia, issued an invitation for Aristotle to join his court. Aristotle remained in Mysia for three years, during which he married the kings niece Pythias. At the end of the three years, Hermeas was attacked by the Persians, leading Aristotle to leave the country and head to the island of Lesbos. Aristotle and Alexander the Great In 343 BCE, Aristotle received a request from King Phillip II of Macedonia to tutor his son Alexander. Aristotle agreed to the request, spending seven years working closely with the young man who would later become the famous Alexander the Great. At the end of seven years, Alexander was crowned king and Aristotles work was complete. Though he left Macedonia, however, Aristotle stayed in close touch with the young king, corresponding regularly; it is likely that Aristotles counsel had a significant impact on Alexander for many years, inspiring his love of literature and the arts. The Lyceum and Peripatetic Philosophy Leaving Macedonia, Aristotle returned to Athens where he set up The Lyceum, a school that became a rival to Platos Academy. Unlike Plato, Aristotle taught that it is possible to determine the end causes and purposes of existence and that it is possible to figure out these causes and purposes through observation. This philosophical approach, called teleology, became one of the major philosophical concepts of the western world. Aristotle divided his study of philosophy into three groups: practical, theoretical, and productive sciences. Practical philosophy included the study of fields such as biology, mathematics, and physics. Theoretical philosophy included metaphysics and the study of the soul. Productive philosophy focused on crafts, agriculture, and the arts. During his lectures, Aristotle would constantly walk back and forth around the Lyceums exercise grounds. This habit became the inspiration for the term peripatetic philosophy, meaning walking around philosophy. It was during this period that Aristotle wrote many of his most important works, which had profound impacts on later philosophical thinking. At the same time, he and his students conducted scientific and philosophical research and amassed a significant library. Aristotle continued to lecture at the Lyceum for 12 years, finally selecting a favorite student, Theophrastus, to succeed him. Death In 323 BCE when Alexander the Great died, the Assembly in Athens declared war against Alexanders successor, Antiphon. Aristotle was considered an anti-Athenian, pro-Macedonian, and so he was charged with impiety. Bearing in mind the fate of Socrates, who was unjustly put to death, Aristotle went into voluntary exile to Chalcis, where he died one year later of a digestive ailment in 322 BCE at the age of 63. Legacy Aristotles philosophy, logic, science, metaphysics, ethics, politics, and system of deductive reasoning have been of inestimable importance to philosophy, science, and even business. His theories impacted the medieval church and continue to have significance today. Among his vast discoveries and creations are included: The disciplines of natural philosophy (natural history) and metaphysicsSome of the concepts that underlie Newtonian laws of motionSome of the first classifications of living things based on logical categories (the Scala Naturae)Influential theories about ethics, war, and economicsSignificant and influential theories and ideas about rhetoric, poetry, and theater Aristotles syllogism is at the basis of deductive (top-down) reasoning, arguably the most common form of reasoning used today. A textbook example of a syllogism is: Major premise: All humans are mortal.Minor premise: Socrates is a human.Conclusion: Socrates is mortal. Sources Mark, Joshua J. Aristotle. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 02 Sep 2009.Shields, Christopher. Ã¢â¬Å"Aristotle.Ã¢â¬ Ã Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 09 July 2015.
Posted by Unknown at 7:50 AM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Ikea - Research Paper Example According to a research made in 2008, the company has been considered as the largest furniture retailing firm in the world. Overtime, proportions of discretionary spending of consumers in most economies have increased with rise in per capita. Such changes in composition of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ expenditure have helped to enhance revenues of comfort product producing companies like, IKEA (Peng, 2010). Even so, it is also true that since the global financial crisis, aggregate income generated from the retail sector in the international market has fallen due to recessionary trails in economies. A very strong rival of IKEA, MFI Group Limited (a furniture retailing firm in U.K.) was forced to shut down its business during such critical conditions. So, since 2008, IKEA is facing strategic issues in business. The aggregate sales of the firm were recorded as 20.9 billion in 2009 and annual growth was approximately 1.4% since then (IKEA Group, 2013c). Rather, due to financial crunches, IKEA had t o cut down almost 5000 jobs in 2009 (IKEA Group, 2013b). Thus, from the above analysis, it can be claimed that the company needs to frame appropriate productive strategies in business which will help it to expand the scope of business internationalization and increase revenue in the long run. The following context of the paper will study the strategic initiatives that are already undertaken by IKEA as well as suggest ways through which the company would be able to strategically grow in the long run (Twarowska and KÃâ¦kol, 2013). From the above context, it is evident that IKEA is facing problems since emergence of the financial crisis. The company lacks adequate manpower to enhance its overall productivity. Moreover, aggregate demand experienced in companyÃ¢â¬â¢s domestic market has also fallen. This is evident from the annual report of the company. The gross revenue of IKEA was recorded as US$ 2583982 in 2012 and US$ 2406539 in 2011 (IKEA Group, 2013a). Even so, the liabilities in business
Posted by Unknown at 4:31 AM
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
The Meaning of Integrity - Essay Example In some cases, integrity has been used to refer to the work of art, a defense system, or a computerized database. When used on objects, integrity refers to the purity, intactness, and wholeness of a thing. Many different facets of integrity help people understand its different meaning. Various aspects and facets of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life are attributed to integrity. In most cases, people speak of attributes such as artistic, intellectual, and professional integrity. Although the term has different facets that explore on its meaning, the most philosophical aspect of it is that it relates to the general character. Specifically, philosophers have attempted to understand what it is for an individual to demonstrate integrity throughout life. Many have tried to answer the question of what it is to be a person of integrity. In summary, the philosophersÃ¢â¬â¢ discourse about integrity revolves around two fundamental elements. The first element is the formal relation that an individual has to oneself and secondly, the aspect of acting morally, no matter what the environment is. A person of integrity is one that does what is right despite the pressures or challenges he finds himself into. Such an individual is not moved by emotions, but by a strong character that stands for moral purpose. One of the integration outlooks of integrity is the act of keeping self uncorrupted and self-intact. It is important to note that an individual is subject to many conflicting desires. If an individual acts towards the conflict desires, then he or she acts without integrity. Integrity requires one to destroy the sinful nature that is to fulfill human desires such as greed, corruption, and immorality just to name a few. Integrity requires one to make a sober decision between doing what is right and what is wrong. For example, one may endorse the desire to outlay and study, a desire to party or go to church, and a desire to be unfaithful or faithful. The decisions that human beings make depend so much on integrity that one possesses. A person of integrity is one that is not determined by the environment he is in, but chooses to do what is right in spite of the cost or challenge. Fully integrated people do not fall into victims of immorality, corruption, or greed. Rather, they try to do the best they can to live an appealing life. A person of integrity bases judgment on positive desires and commitments. Personal integrity demands one to stand for something. This explains why an individual chooses to do the right thing regardless of being in the midst of something or an environment that would push one to make the wrong choice. As philosophers view it, integrity is having regard on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s role and respect over what is worth and valuable doing. It means doing the right thing at all circumstances and times regardless of whether someone is watching or not. It takes the courage for an individual to do the right thing at the right time, independently on the consequen ces. For years, many people have believed that it takes years to build integrity, but it only takes seconds to ruin and lose it. With this, it is important for one to safeguard his personal life to preserve integrity, which is costly to have. Every individual should strive to attain the reputation of integrity. At all cost, one should avoid people that ruin oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. A person should be conscious of his or her action as there are consequences that follow. Success may come and go, but integrity remains forever. Thus, as people work hard to be successful in life, they should also strive hard to attain integrity that helps one to achieve his intended goals. In workplace, integrity is a word that reflects on an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢
Posted by Unknown at 8:39 PM
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Policing Domestic Violence Essay Domestic violence can be considered to be an act of violence which has been observed to occur in every socio-economic class as well as within all cultures. Domestic violence is defined as a pattern of coercive control that one individual intermittently exerts over another by means of spiritual, emotional, sexual, physical or economic abuse (http://www. dvvap. org/i). This form of exploitation has victimized mostly the women and children and men in much fewer cases and it continues to be perpetrated all over the world. In some regions or nations of the world, domestic violence has become a daily occurrence. Domestic violence leads to very drastic effects on the family, especially if perpetrated on both women and children. When this form of violence is done through physical harm, it results to injury, disability or even death in victims. Mental problems that may also occur usually make the victims feel unloved, lonely and have low self-esteem. Depression occurs in many victims of psychological abuse, which in turn may cause severe isolation of the victims from family and friends. Sexual violence and incest are other forms of domestic violence. In some regions of the world, domestic violence causes continue to rise due to patriarchal, cultural and religious traditions, (Human Rights Watch, 2005. , pp 12). All over the world, different governments handle domestic violence in many ways due to differing views on violence Different proposals have been presented to encourage the governments to have certain views on this form of violence. According to Lisa, domestic violence should be treated as a political and public problem. It should also be viewed as a breach of the human rights. It is a violation of human rights which every individual is entitled to. Those who perpetrate actions of violence against the others should be stopped, (Lisa, H. 78-79). Policing domestic violence refers to a scientifically developed application that aims at solving the domestic violence problem. In the past, it has involved testing of hypothesis in relation to the classification, prediction and the domestic violence prevention. Policing domestic violence policing as a tool of solving domestic violence also experiences several challenges as a crime prevention strategy (Hoctor, M. 53). In order to identify more effective policing strategies for domestic violence prevention and control, a culture of science is very necessary where the strategy integrates trial and error as a norm in crime prevention. The domestic violence policing programs aim at offering support to victims of domestic violence while at the same time preventing domestic violence. However, the public has raised concern about the domestic violence public policy. Lawrence et al states that in the past, the public has been concerned about the domestic violence policy. This is because it is sometimes based on ideology and it lacks evidence based on science. The public advocates for an effective domestic violence policing which should be practical and also be implemented appropriately. This would be a very good measure in preventing domestic violence (Lawrence S. et al, 24). In the last decade, police response to domestic violence has been criticized with a claim that the police did not take violence incidents seriously. However, effective measures to curb domestic violence are being developed and implemented through better policing. In this paper, the domestic violence policing issue will be discussed. The ethical stance of domestic violence in policing will be looked at, as well as the police departmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility of policing. The past system and current issues arising due to violence will be evaluated. Discussion For effective policing in domestic violence, a cultural evolution in policing needs to be developed in order to support the scientific revolution in order to solve the domestic violence problem. The cultural evolution rapid movement requires a growing partnership between the police and criminologists, public health community officers and professional scientists. Coherence of approach by the different police units to domestic violence is promoted by policy statements or documents where the Police officers introduce the policy documents with varying extent and content. With the increasing reports of domestic violence to the police, the police service has been required to utilize their limited resources to improve domestic violence service delivery to the people. Domestic violence is a great concern for the community where the police intervene in many cases. Whenever the police receive an initial call for assistance, it is their responsibility to provide immediate protection to the victim due to the fact that the police have certain powers which allow them to respond to domestic violence incidents. Whether the victims feel confident in contacting the police departments later in future will depend on how the police perform their tasks when the victim makes the initial contact (Lawrence, S. 126). The police have a major role in arresting criminals or offenders with the perpetrators of domestic violence considered as criminals because they undermine the human rights of the victims. The suspects are usually arrested and charged if there is enough evidence of violence against the victim. However, law enforcement officers should ensure that the suspectÃ¢â¬â¢s rights are not violated until the truth is established much later as one of the requirement in the police departmental policy. The police forces have domestic violence policy documents which contain written aims and priorities that are expected to assist them either solve, prevent or reduce domestic violence incidents. The policy documents normally contain the domestic violence definition, its implications, as well as guidance about the various police response components. The responsibility to implement domestic violence policies is something that is shared across a range of the police roles. The policies are very vital in protecting domestic violence victims against actions of exploitation such as domestic violence involving withholding of economic resources from a victim. Some children are even denied education through this form of abuse, as well partners who do not work. This denies the victims their basic needs, which is considered unethical and unacceptable. Domestic violence policing prevents this form of exploitation and instead promotes ethical practices in the society. Through policing, public safety problems are defined, analyzed and effective solutions to the problems addressed. Though the society is responsible for propagating ethics, it sometimes undermines the ethics if it allows domestic violence to occur without taking any action. For instance, in patriarchal societies, men are sometimes allowed to completely dominate over women. This had led to lack of knowledge and empowerment in women to speak out against violence, whereby the victims lack the ability to express their views and opinions with those who do not adhere to this being severely punished through domestic violence. Domestic violence policies have been developed to address such cultural practices with the police ensuring that law enforcement in relation to such policies is carried out. The police department should have the responsibility of policing domestic violence in the community because they are law enforcers who are responsible for ensuring law and order is maintained in the society and the human rights are well protected. Preventing and reducing domestic violence is one of the ways in which the human rights of everyone in the community are protected. For instance in Australia, police powers and procedures are well set out in the Crimes Act 1990(Policing Domestic Violence in New South Wales NSW, 1999). In addition, the police powers can be found in the police guidelines, referred to as Domestic Violence Standard Operating Procedures. Another example can be seen in the US, where the police department has adopted mandatory arrest policy for domestic violence cases. For spousal violence cases, arrest based on probable cause could be done where the Police officers were allowed to arrest suspects without a warrant as long as the officers had probable cause whether he/she had witnessed the incident or not. This was happening in 23 states of the United States of America by the year 2005 (Hoctor, M. 007) Another reason why the police should participate in domestic violence policing is that, the legislation that protects people from domestic violence in most cases directs the police to intervene in protecting the victims of domestic violence. The police have the power to exercise arrest of criminals or offenders when need be. In policing domestic violence, domestic violence incidents should be stopped as soon as possible making the arrest of offenders by the police an effective means of stopping domestic abuse. This therefore makes it their vital responsibility in policing domestic violence with the responsibility aiming at stopping the conflict, as well as protecting and ensuring the immediate safety for the victims. As law enforcers, the police have a responsibility to ensure criminals are charged in court which mitigates future abuse. The police department receives reports on domestic violence from the community members and then investigates the cases to establish the cause of the abuse, the effects and the victim or offender. After establishing the facts about a case, offenders are charged in court. For instance policies allow police officers to apply for an apprehended violence order (AVO), which guides the judicial process (Lawrence, S. 101). Good police service initiatives in the police departments that enhance awareness in people about violence and service delivery show that they should have a good responsibility in domestic violence policing. The police departments in many nations have instituted the initiatives as a result of their recognition that a high percentage of people in our community are now aware that domestic violence is a crime. These initiatives include, public awareness through advertising campaigns, placement of domestic violence liaison officers (DVLO), specialized training for officers, working with the Attorney General and the development of COPS (Computerized Operational Policing system) to produce statistics relevant to the development of effective domestic violence prevention measures. The initiatives are a good indication of how effective the police department can be in domestic violence policing. The domestic violence issue has attracted widespread public concern, in the past and also in the current world. However, the past system differs with the current system in relation to how policing in domestic violence was/is handled. In the past, the number of domestic violence cases that were reported was fewer than the current number of the cases reported to the police. The continued increase of the reported cases in turn has necessitated the development of measures that will curb the violence effectively. This has led to the development of new measures/policies to address this problem. However, in the past, this problem was not handled with much seriousness as it is now which made the past system less effective in domestic violence policing. Cultural beliefs and practices in the past contributed to continued domestic abuse, because the victims were sometimes convinced that they deserved to be abused. Different societies have changed their beliefs towards domestic violence over time with people become more aware of domestic violence as a crime currently, which has greatly assisted in effective domestic violence policing. People are more willing to speak out about this issue in the modern world as compared to the past years. Modern police service initiatives have enhanced better domestic violence policing as compared to the past system of policing. For instance placement of domestic violence liaison officers (DVLO) in the local areas as a modern initiative has made it easy for people to report violence cases. In addition, offenders are easily apprehended and charged for their offences. In the past, lack of awareness in some victims and the community as a whole in policing encouraged continued abuse because the offender had no action taken against them. Current systems have developed specialized training for officers, which involves training of officers in response to domestic violence and other issues that surround domestic violence. On the other hand, the past systems did not have such training programs. The standard operating procedures (SOP) launching together with the development of computerized operational policing system (COPS) have been very instrumental in adoption of effective domestic violence policing measures in the modern systems (Policing Domestic Violence in New South Wales NSW,1999). The domestic violence policing have also experienced several problems. The policing may lack inadequate support which may in turn undermine how effective the policing can be in solving domestic violence. The police officers who handle domestic violence cases have been accused of not providing the involved parties with enough information and sometimes they have an inappropriate attitude towards the victims. In addition, they have shown unsympathetic, rude and indifferent behavior towards the victims. Nevertheless, solutions to these problems have been integrated in domestic violence policing programs to ensure domestic violence is prevented. Though domestic violence prevention measures were present in the past, current measures have been developed to improve on the past strategies
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